The font options, resources, skills and textual works that are associated with publishing, including “online publishing”, ie. the creation of web pages. (in short the art and skill of designing letters and words is Typography.)
Design and Typography go hand in hand, designers the world over use it in logo’s, advertisements, packaging and posters. So it can make any piece of work stand out from the crowd.
Typography (from the Greek words τύπος(typos) = form and γραφή(graphy) = writing) is the art and technique of arranging type. The arrangement of type involves the selection of typefaces, point size, line length, leading (line spacing), adjusting the spaces between groups of letters (tracking) and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning). Type design is a closely related craft, which some consider distinct and others a part of it; most typographers do not design typefaces, and some type designers do not consider themselves typographers.
It is performed by typesetters, compositors, typographers, graphic designers, art directors, comic book artists, graffiti artists, clerical workers, and anyone else who arranges type for a product. Until the Digital Age, This typo art was a specialized occupation. Digitization almost opened up typo art to new generations of visual designers and lay users. According to David Jury, “Typography is now something everybody does.”
In contemporary use, the practice and study of typography is very broad, therefore we are covering all aspects of letter design and application. These include:
* typesetting and type design
* handwriting and calligraphy
* inscriptional and architectural lettering
* poster design and other large scale lettering such as signage and billboards
* business communications and promotional collateral
* wordmarks and typographic logos (logotypes)
* apparel (clothing)
* labels on maps
* vehicle instrument panels
* kinetic typography in motion picture films and television
* as a component of industrial design—type on household appliances, pens and wristwatches, for example
* as a component in modern poetry (see, for example, the poetry of E. E. Cummings)
Since digitization, typography has spread to a wider ranger of applications, appearing on web pages, LCD mobile phone screens, and hand-held video games. The ubiquity of type has led typographers to coin the phrase “Type is everywhere”.
Traditional typography follows four principles: repetition, contrast, proximity, and alignment.
In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution of typeset material, with a minimum of distractions and anomalies, is aimed at producing clarity and transparency.
Choice of font(s) is the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements of appropriate typefaces and fonts. For historic material established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods.
Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed “text romans” or “book romans” with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly fitted seriffed text fonts specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans-serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.
Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography is also subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not.
In typography, color is the overall density of the ink on the page, determined mainly by the typeface, but also by the word spacing, leading and depth of the margins. Text layout, tone or color of set matter, and also the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a “feel” or “resonance” to the subject matter. Hence with printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.
Display typography is a potent element in graphic design, where there is less concern for readability and more potential for using type in an artistic manner. Type is combined with negative space, graphic elements and pictures, forming relationships and dialog between words and images.
Color and size of type elements are much more prevalent than in text typography. Most display typography exploits type at larger sizes, where the details of letter design are magnified. Color is used for its emotional effect in conveying the tone and nature of subject matter.
Display typography encompasses:
* posters; book covers;
* typographic logos and wordmarks; billboards;
* packaging and labeling; on-product typography; calligraphy;
* graffiti; inscriptional and architectural lettering;
* poster design and other large scale lettering signage;
* business communications and promotional collateral; advertising;
* wordmarks and typographic logos (logotypes),
* and kinetic typography in motion pictures and television; vending machine displays; online and computer screen displays.
The wanted poster for the assassins of Abraham Lincoln was printed with lead and woodcut type, and incorporates photography.